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人力资源影响因素的空间效应分析
添加时间:2019-10-15

  摘 要

  随着科技的进步、社会的发展、地区与地区之间甚至国与国之间的竞争逐步地转化为人才的竞争。大力发展人力资源,实施人才强国、科技兴国战略已成为时代的要求。我国地域辽阔,人口众多,预计到 2050 年人口总数将突破16 亿人,不断增加的人口数量为我国加快人力资源开发和利用提供了优越的条件。研究我国人力资源的开发效率和空间溢出效应具有重大现实意义。

  首先,本文从人力资源的概念、性质和相关的理论入手,对我国人力资源的研究现状进行了详细的分析。通过阅读文献和分析理论找出影响人力资源发展的主要因素,为研究人力资源的开发效率和空间溢出效应提供依据。本文从人力资源的数量和质量、投入力度、产出效果三个方面进行分析构建指标体系,利用熵权-灰色关联对我国近十年人力资源发展的综合竞争力进行分析得出:整体上而言,我国各个省份人力资源综合竞争力缓慢上升的趋势并不明显,历年来均呈现出东部沿海地带较高,中部次之,西部地区较小的阶梯状分布特征,且个别地区出现或下降或上升的变动趋势。

  其次,采用三阶段DEA对人力资源产出效率进行测算。通过将传统测算效率与去除环境变量和随机干扰影响后的测算效率比较可知:现阶段我国人力资源整体上投入要素量合理,产出效率较高。城镇化建设和GDP增长对于投入要素的松弛变量为负的影响,对外开放程度对投入要素松弛变量为正的影响。经过调整要素投入后人力资源的效率达到较高的水平,说明当下改善环境变量、调整人力资源配置是亟待解决的问题。

  考虑到人力资源产出存在着显著的空间性,因此考虑采用空间计量模型分析人力资源的空间效应大小。首先,采用地理权重对变量的相关性进行检验,Moran` s I 在显著性水平下均通过检验,人力资源具有空间相关性。其次,通过LR 、 RLm 、 Lm 、 hausman 统计量的检验,最终确立 SDM 模型,得出:教育年限、人均GDP、城镇化水平对于产出为促进作用,而对外开放而对产出起抑制作用。同效率分析得到的结论一致。此外,对于模型系数矩阵进行分解,可从直接效应、间接效应、迂回效应上可以得出人力资源的空间效应主要集中在目标区域,并随着地理位置的增大逐步的减小。在 2 阶以上的邻接地区上影响很少,更远地区的影响效应几乎可以进行忽略不计。

  最后,从实证分析中得出结论和启示:人力资源综合竞争力东西部之间的差异较大,应加大对于人才的重视,优化教育教学资源的配置,促进人力资源的均衡发展;只有消除环境变量的不利影响,构建人力资源产业链,才能提高产出效率;通过完善人才市场,建立合理化、规模化的人力培养机构,提高人才的福利待遇,使地区能够吸引并留住人才。实施“产学研”一体化建设,进一步加快科研成果向经济收益的转化速度。

  关键词:熵权,竞争力,三阶段DEA,灰色关联,空间溢出

mba人力资源管理论文

  Abstract

  With the advancement of science and technology, the developmentof society, the competition between regions and regions and evenbetween countries has gradually transformed into competition for talents

  It has become the requirement of the times to vigorously develop humanresources and implement the strategy of strengthening the country bytalents and rejuvenating the country by science and technology Chinahas a vast territory and a large population It is expected that the totalpopulation will exceed 16 billion by 2050 The increasing populationprovides favorable conditions for accelerating the development andutilization of human resources in China It is of great practicalsignificance to study the development efficiency and spatial spillovereffect of human resources in China

  Firstly, starting with the concept, nature and related theory ofhuman resources, this paper makes a detailed analysis of the currentsituation of human resources research in China Through reading theliterature and analyzing the theory, we find out the main reasons thataffect the development of human resources, and provide the basis for thestudy of the development efficiency and spatial spillover effect of humanresources

  Then, from the three aspects of the quantity and quality of humanresources, input intensity, and output effect, the index system is constructed Using the entropy weight method and the gray correlationmethod to study the comprehensive competitiveness of China's humanresources development in the past decades: On the whole, thecomprehensive competitiveness of human resources in various provincesin China tends to rise slowly Over the years, the competitiveness of theeastern coastal areas is relatively high, followed by the central part, andthe western region is less competitive The trend of occurrence declineor rise in some areas

  Secondly, the three-stage data envelopment analysis model is usedto measure the output efficiency of human resources By comparing theefficiency of traditional measurement with that of removingenvironmental variables and random interference, we can see that: Atpresent, China's human resources as a whole has a reasonable inputfactor and high output efficiency Urbanization construction and growthhas negative impact on the slack variables of input factors The degree ofopenness has positive impact on the input factor slack variable Afteradjusting the input of factors, the efficiency of human resources hasreached a high level Explain that the current adjustment of humanresource allocation is an urgent problem to be solved

  Due to the significant spatial correlation between the output andinput factors of human resources Therefore, the establishment of spatialeconometric models to analyze the reasons for the spatial correlation and difference of human resources, And measure the size of the spillovereffect between the spatial regions, and draw the conclusion: Firstly, thecorrelation of the variables is tested by the geographical weight, and thetest is carried out at the level of significance, indicating that it is suitableto adopt the spatial model modeling After the LR, LM and R-lm tests,the SDM model is finally established It is concluded that the years ofeducation, the per GDP, and the level of urbanization are the promotingeffects of output, while the opening up to the outside has little effect onthe enthusiasm of output The same conclusions were obtained from theefficiency analysis In addition, the model coefficient matrix isdecomposed From the direct effect, the indirect effect and theroundabout effect, it can be concluded that the spatial effect of humanresources is mainly concentrated in the target area, and graduallydecreases with the increase of the geographical position The influenceon the adjacent areas above the 2nd order is very small, and the effectsin the farther areas can be almost ignored

  Finally, the corresponding conclusions and inspirations are givenfrom the empirical analysis: The comprehensive competitiveness ofhuman resources is quite different between the east and the west It isnecessary to increase the emphasis on manpower, optimize the allocationof educational and teaching resources, and promote the balanceddevelopment of human resources; Only by eliminating the adverse effects of environmental variables and building a human resource outputchain can we improve output efficiency; By perfecting the talent market,we will establish a rationalized and large-scale human resources traininginstitution to improve the welfare of talents, so the region can retaintalents and attract talents The implementation of the"industry-university-research" integration construction will furtheraccelerate the transformation of scientific research results into economicreturns

  In the end, we put out some advice to strengthen corporategovernance form three aspect: how the directorate play an important rolein inner monitoring better, strengthening minority shareholder rights,improving the speed of the transparency from scientific results tobusiness profits

  Keywords:Entropy weight;Competitiveness;Three stages DEA;Greyassociation; Space overflow

  目 录

  1 引言

  1.1 选题背景及研究意义

  1.1.1 选题背景

  经济增长问题一直是经济家最为关注的社会问题,无论是发达国家还是发展中国家都在积极的寻找快速提高经济增长的途径。知识竞争时代,以知识、技术和信息为核心的人力资源在经济中发挥的作用越来越重要。我国早在十三五规划中就已提出要把人才作为支撑经济发展的第一资源,加快推进政策创新和人才发展体制,构建有国际竞争力的人才制度,提高人才质量,优化人才机构,加快建设人才强国。2016 年 7 月人力资源社会保障部制定了规模宏大的高素质人才培养措施:以高层次和高技能人才为重点,突出“高精尖缺”导向,努力造就结构合理、素质优良、富有创新精神的人才队伍,形成具有国际竞争力的人才制度优势,推进我国向人才强国迈进的步伐。在党的十九大报告中,习近平总书记进一步强调“人才是实现民族振兴、赢得国际竞争主动的战略资源。”人力资源的发展目标是要“培养造就一大批具有国际水平的战略科技人才、科技领军人才、青年科技人才和高水平创新团队。”我国对于人才的重视程度已提升到了国家战略层次上。

  我国的国土面积为 960 万平方公里,尽管各种矿物质资源总含量较大,但巨大的人口基数使得人均占有量远远落后于世界平均水平。据国家统计局 2017年公布的数据显示,当前我国人口已达到了 139 亿,占世界总人口的 24%。面对巨大的人口基数,加快人力资源的开发和利用,无论是对“十三五”规划还是对经济社会的发展都有重大意义。从 2008 年到 2017 年我国 GDP 总值从300670 亿元飞跃到 827122 亿元。全国教育经费从 1450074 亿元提高到了4256201 亿元。受教育人口在逐步增加,据国家统计局公告显示,当前我国的平均人均受教育年限已经达到 11 年。然而,从历年的统计资料看,我国每万人专利发明授予项仅有 3 个,远落后于发达国家。针对我国人力资源产出较低的现状,原因可能是由于产业结构的不合理,也可能是人文环境或地域自然条件的限制,甚至是对自然资源开发的程度不够。本文从人力资源的角度深入探究我国人力资源的发展状况。试图通过对当下人力资源发展现状,找出影响主要的影响因素并提出相应的建议。

 【由于本篇文章为硕士论文,如需全文请点击底部下载全文链接】

  1.1.2 研究意义
  1.2 国内外文献综述
  1.2.1 国外研究综述
  1.2.2 国内研究综
  1.3 主要研究内容和研究方法
  1.3.1 研究内容
  1.3.2 研究方法

  2 人力资源理论与研究方法介绍
  2.1 人力资源理论
  2.1.1 人力资源的概念和性质
  2.1.2 人力资源理论构成
  2.2 人力资源研究方法介绍
  2.2.1 熵权-灰色关联法
  2.2.2 三阶段 DEA
  2.2.3 空间计量模型

  3 我国人力资源现状描述分析
  3.1 人力资源的数量和质量描述
  3.2 人力资源的投入力度分析
  3.3 人力资源的产出效果分析
  3.4 人力资源的综合竞争力分析

  4 我国各省份人力资源投入产出效率分析
  4.1 数据包络分析模型的特点
  4.2 变量选取与数据说明
  4.3 效率测算结果及评价
  4.4 本章小结

  5 人力资源影响因素的空间效应分析
  5.1 计量模型设定
  5.2 变量选取与数据说明
  5.3 人力资源空间相关性检验
  5.4 人力资源的影响因素的空间效应分析
  5.4.1 空间直接溢出效应和空间间接溢出效应
  5.4.2 复杂路径溢出效应分析
  5.5 本章小结

  6 结论与启示
  6.1 结论
  6.2 启示

  参考文献

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